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Braille Formats

Math and science textbooks on a shelf.

Literary Braille - Uncontracted

Uncontracted Braille is the most basic form of Literary Braille and requires the least amount of cognitive burden on the reader. Uncontracted Braille is very limited in use, as it is not suitable for most reading material beyond a beginning scope of a Braille reader, and is not suitable for math and science. Uncontracted Braille simply consists of the 26 characters of the alphabet and various punctuation symbols such as the period (.) and comma (,) but does not include abbreviations or contractions. The following is an example of uncontracted Braille:

Uncontracted Braille example of the word "understanding"

Literary Braille - Contracted

Contracted Braille is more advanced than uncontracted and is considered to be the universal standard form of Literary Braille. Contracted Braille consists of several abbreviations and contractions that provide the reader with greater ease of use. Braille readers often learn uncontracted Braille first and then learn contracted, which requires more cognitive processing by the Braille reader to decipher the translation. The following is an example of contracted Braille:

Contracted Braille example of the word "understanding"

Nemeth Braille Code

The Braille format used for math and science is known as Nemeth Braille Code, developed by Dr. Abraham Nemeth. Braille readers learn Nemeth Braille only after they have complete understanding of both uncontracted and contracted Literary Braille. Nemeth Braille contains the characters for communicating the complex mathematical symbols such as the infinity sign (∞) and the summation sign (∑). The Braille reader must learn Nemeth Braille Code to develop an understanding of math and science based subjects. In fact, the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) standard rulebook states that Contracted Braille should not be used for math and science. The following is an example of Nemeth Braille Code:

Nemeth Braille Code example of the phrase "Sigma function, from 0 to infinity, f of x d x"

Foreign Languages

gh offers the ability to transcribe an assortment of foreign languages into Braille. Translation tables are created for each language and gh currently has the capacity to translate documents into Spanish, French, German, Italian, Latin, and Japanese. The following is an example of "comprensiòn" using uncontracted Spanish Braille:

Spanish example of the word "comprensiòn" using Spanish Grade 1

Computer Braille Code

This Braille code is used for translating material that includes computer notation such as computer programs, computer commands, URLs, and computer screenshots. The following is an example of Computer Braille Code:

Computer Braille Code example of the web address "http://www.ghbraille.com"